At present, the top domestic water uses are bathing, toilet flushing and laundry. To reduce water use and carbon emissions, we can start from these three aspects and change our living habits to reduce waste.


 5-minute shower  

Keep shower time within five minutes.
Appropriate bathing method
Take shower instead of bath.
Use showerhead rated Grade 1 in the Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme.
Reduce water use
Wait until you have a full load for doing laundry.
Choose a washing machine with adjustable water level.
Use water smart appliances such as water saving faucets, dual-flush cisterns and water efficient washing machine and dishwasher.
Do not run water non-stop when brushing teeth, washing hands or shaving.
Prevent leakage
Close faucets properly and repair immediately if they become loose.
Properly maintain water pipes, toilet and tanks to prevent water leakage.
Reuse water
Washing machine will discharge water two to three times when doing laundry. Wastewater discharged later in the cycle contains few pollutants, and can be used for floor and household cleaning.
If freshwater is used for toilet flushing, retain wastewater after shower or laundry for such use.
Water used for washing vegetables, keeping fish or preparing rice can be used to water pot plants.


Freshwater is used in the manufacturing processes of many products. Avoiding products entailing high water consumption can save water and help you live a low-carbon life.
Textile without dye  

Carbon dioxide is generated in dye production, and in drying and dyeing textiles.
Avoid leatherware
Softening leatherware consumes a large amount of water, and toxic wastewater is produced in the process.
Reuse water bottles
Plastic is a byproduct of petroleum, the production of which consumes oil and generates carbon emission. Water is also required in the production processes.
More vegetables and less meat
Herbivores such as sheep and cows produce methane in their guts during digestion; this is a greenhouse gas that is discharged into the air. The global warming potential of methane is 23 times higher than carbon dioxide.
Large amounts of water are required for livestock digestion and metabolisms. This water is lost through urine and faeces. Production of meat is more energy intensive than for vegetables.
Livestock rearing requires crops as feed; and more energy is needed in transporting livestock than vegetables, hence more carbon emissions.
Products in daily use Water consumption for production
Sports shoes (a pair) 4,988L
Leather shoes (a pair) 8,000L
A4-size white paper (each sheet) 10L
500mL plastic water bottle (each) 5L
Lettuce (each pound) 107.5L
Carrot (each pound) 88.5L
Tomato (each pound) 97L
Beef (each pound) 6,985L
Chicken (each pound) 1,950L
Pork (each pound) 2,722L